Thursday, December 26, 2013

Oil Production in Sudan

South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in July 2011. Most of the oil is now produced in South Sudan, but the country is landlocked and remains dependent on Sudan because it must use Sudan's export pipelines and processing facilities. In early 2012, South Sudan voluntarily shut in all of its oil production because of a dispute with Sudan over oil transit fees.

Following South Sudan's secession, Sudan requested transit fees of $32-36/barrel (bbl) in an attempt to make up for the oil revenue loss, while South Sudan offered a transit fee of less than $1/bbl.  After nearly 15 months of intermittent negotiations, South Sudan restarted oil production in April 2013. Despite the progress that has been made to reconcile differences, several unresolved issues remain and production may be curtailed again in the future.

Oil plays a vital role in the economies of both countries. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), oil represented around 57 percent of Sudan's total government revenue and around 78 percent of export earnings in 2011, while it represented around 98 percent of total government revenues for South Sudan in 2011.

According to the Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ), Sudan and South Sudan have 5 billion barrels of proved crude oil reserves as of January 1, 2013. According to BP's 2013 Statistical Review, approximately 3.5 billion barrels are in South Sudan and 1.5 billion barrels are in Sudan. The majority of reserves are located in the oil-rich Muglad and Melut basins, which extend into both countries. Oil is transported through two main pipelines that stretch from the landlocked South to Port Sudan. Because of civil conflict, oil exploration prior to the 2011 independence was mostly limited to the central and south-central regions of the unified Sudan.

Natural gas associated with oil fields is mostly flared or re-injected. Despite proven reserves of 3 trillion cubic feet, gas development has been limited. In 2010, the unified Sudan flared approximately 11.8 billion cubic feet of natural gas, according to the latest data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which represents about 0.2 percent of the total gas flared globally.

International oil companies (IOCs), primarily from Asia, dominate the oil sectors in both countries. They are led by CNPC, India's Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Malaysia's Petronas. These companies hold large stakes in the leading consortia operating in both countries: the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company, the Dar Petroleum Operating Company, and the Sudd Petroleum Operating Company.

Table 1: Main oil companies in Sudan and South Sudan
Consortium/subsidiary Company Country of
Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) CNPC China 40
Petronas Malaysia 30
ONGC India 25
Sudapet* Sudan 5
Nilepet* South Sudan 5
Dar Petroleum Operating Company (DPOC) CNPC China 41
Petronas Malaysia 40
Nilepet South Sudan 8
Sinopec China 6
Egypt Kuwait Holding Egypt 3.6
Other partner(s) -- 1.4
Sudd Petroleum Operating Company (SPOC) Nilepet South Sudan 41.9375
Petronas Malaysia 33.9375
ONGC India 24.125
Petro Energy E&P CNPC China 95
Sudapet Sudan 5
Star Oil Ansan Wikfs Yemen 66
Sudapet Sudan 34

Note: * Sudapet holds a 5-percent share in GNPOC's operations in Sudan, and Nilepet holds a 5-percent share in GNPOC's operations in South Sudan. Source: Company websites, IHS Edin, and Middle East Economic Survey (MEES)

Total oil production reached its peak of 486,000 bb/d in 2010, but declined to around 453,000 bbl/d in 2011. The fall in output was driven by production declines due to maturing oil fields and lack of investment in Sudan, as well as a shortage of skilled workers in South Sudan in 2011.

In 2012, combined production from Sudan and South Sudan plummeted to around 115,000 bbl/d because South Sudan shut in all of its production at the end of January 2012

Sudan has two export pipelines that travel northbound across the country to the Bashayer (Bashair) Marine Terminal, located about 15 miles south of Port Sudan. The Petrodar pipeline transports the Dar Blend, a heavy sweet crude, from South Sudan's Blocks 3 and 7. The Dar Blend sells at a discount to the Nile Blend along with Brent, the international benchmark for the crude oil price. The pipeline stretches 850 miles, and its design (maximum) capacity is 500,000 bbl/d. It includes several heating units along its length because of the waxy, acidic nature of the crude. The Petrodar pipeline was reportedly filled with water during the time that oil production was shut down.

The GNPOC pipeline transports the Nile Blend, a medium, low-sulfur waxy crude oil, 1,000 miles from the Heglig processing facilities to the Bashayer Marine Terminal. The pipeline has a design capacity of 450,000 bbl/d. The Nile Blend is sourced from Blocks 2 (Heglig and Bamboo fields) and 4 (Diffra and Neem fields) in Sudan and Blocks 1 (Unity field) and 5A (Mala and Thar Jath fields) in South Sudan.
Sudan and South Sudan export the Nile and Dar blends mostly to Asian markets. According to estimates based on data from Global Trade Atlas and FACTS Global Energy, total crude oil exports, including lease condensate, averaged around 337,000 bbl/d in 2011.

China imported 260,000 bbl/d from Sudan in 2011, which accounted for 5 percent of total Chinese crude imports, according to FACTS Global Energy.

ELECTRICITY GENERATION.  The unified Sudan generated 8.1 billion kilowatthours (KWh) of electricity in 2010. Almost all was generated from oil (3.8 KWh) and hydroelectricity (3.8 KWh), with the remaining 6 percent from biomass and waste (0.5 KWh). Although power generation almost tripled between 2000 and 2010, millions of people are still without access to electricity. According to the latest 2009 estimates from the International Energy Agency (IEA), about 36 percent of the population had access to electricity, higher than the regional average for Sub-Saharan Africa, which was almost 31 percent. (DOE-EIA)

The Crises In Sudan

South Sudan's Political Power Struggle Engulfs Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Groups

The conflict in South Sudan began on Dec. 15 as a power struggle between President Salva Kiir and his former vice president, Riek Machar, ahead of 2015 presidential elections.

South Sudan broke away from Sudan in 2011 and there were repeated clashes with its neighbor over oil production and exports. But it quickly descended into clashes between the country's two largest ethnic groups, including fighting for control of oil-producing areas. Oil is South Sudan's major source of revenue so whoever controls it holds the key to power. These clashes make for little hope for a unified South Sudan.

Before predominantly Christian South Sudan won independence from the mostly Muslim and Arab-ruled north, Mr. Kiir and Mr. Machar had been on opposing sides of the 1983-2005 civil war between the central government in Khartoum and the Sudan People's Liberation Army in the south. They made an alliance to win independence in 2011, but it disintegrated in the past 11 days.

The two sides were fighting Wednesday in the oil-producing northern states of Unity and Upper Nile.  Both sides think that they can win militarily. Both sides are overconfident as they attempt to deal the other side a decisive military blow.  More than 1,000 people have been killed and tens of thousands have fled in fear of ethnic massacres since the fighting broke out. In Unity State, to the north, Nuer are accused of slaughtering ethnic Dinka.

With decades of bad blood between Mr. Kiir's Dinka ethnic group and Mr. Machar's Nuer group, the conflict has quickly escalated into ethnic clashes, spurring tens of thousands to seek protection at United Nations camps. About 90,000 people have been displaced by the violence, and about 56,000 of them are taking shelter in U.N. compounds. They have fled to U.N. bases throughout the country that were never designed to serve as havens.  (WSJ, 12/25/2013)

Thursday, December 19, 2013

Just Energy Policies: Reducing Pollution and Creating Jobs

Just Energy Policies

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Environmental and Climate Justice Program
December 2013


This energy policy compendium will give you the information you need to stand up for a just energy future.  Our intention in creating this compendium is that it will serve as a resource and will spur states to make sure their energy policies protect communities from harmful energy production processes while simultaneously providing equitable access to economic opportunities in energy efficiency and clean energy.

Community involvement in paving new energy pathways is especially important because our energy system is broken and communities of color are paying the highest price.

Focal Policies

The compendium profiles

Renewable Portfolio Standards, Energy Efficiency Resource Standards, and Net Metering Standards for each state and also shares detailed information on how to access rebates/loan/grants, etc. for energy efficiency and clean energy.

Renewable Portfolio Standards

A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires electric utility companies and other retail electric providers to supply a specific minimum amount of customer load with electricity from eligible renewable energy sources. In order to protect community health and well-being, as well as preserve the planet, we must transition to renewable energy. In setting standards for the content of RPS, the NAACP goes further and distinguishes that this must be clean energy, recognizing that not all renewable energy has been proven safe with minimal impact on the environment and communities. Under this definition, we focus on efforts on advancing solar, wind, and geothermal energy.

Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) establish a requirement for utility companies to meet annual and cumulative energy savings targets through a portfolio of energy efficiency programs. Given our current dependence on harmful energy production practices, we should reduce our demand for energy altogether.

Net Metering Standards

Net Metering Standards require electric utility companies to provide retail credit for net renewable energy produced by a consumer. Meaning, if the consumer generates more energy from their solar panels or wind turbines than they use, they can sell it back to the utility at the same rate at which they purchase electricity. In order to incentivize clean energy practices at the consumer level, we need to offer the opportunity for revenue-generation for individuals who contribute to the grid through their at-home energy production.

Equity in Energy Enterprise Policies

As stated above, communities of color historically disproportionately have less access to jobs and wealth creation opportunities. As part of the effort to advance just energy policies and practices, it is essential to review state policy provisions to ensure that they foster economic growth for local communities.

Two key provisions that can ensure equity in economic opportunities afforded by state policies are ‘Local Hire’ and ‘Minority Business Enterprise.’

Local Hire

Local Hire is a goal or requirement to hire people who live near their place of work. This goal is achieved by requiring contractors that are awarded publicly funded projects to recruit a specified proportion of local residents as workers on the project. This provision: 1) ensures that tax dollars are invested back into the local economy; 2) reduces the environmental impact of commuting; 3) fosters community involvement; and 4) preserves local employment opportunities in construction.

Minority Business Enterprise

Minority Business Enterprise is defined as a business that is at least 51% owner- operated and controlled on a daily basis by people who identify with specific ethnic minority classifications, including African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and Native American. MBEs can be self-identified, but are typically certified by a city, state, or federal agency. The predominant certifier for minority businesses is the National Minority Supplier Development Council. Often publically funded projects set a requirement or goal to source MBEs as suppliers.

Financial Incentives for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Tables listing each state’s incentives and rebates for energy efficiency and renewable energy are included in each state profile in the compendium. Each incentive has a short description and a hyperlink to more information.

Statewide Incentives

Statewide incentives are generally rebates and loan programs that individuals and businesses may claim according to the provisions of state law. Incentives may also include Local Options enacted by municipal governments.

Utility-Specific Incentives

This section relates to the incentives offered by specific utilities in each state, and in some cases interstate utilities. Some programs are only available to either electric or gas customers of a certain utility. Different programs are available for residential and commercial customers.

Local Incentives

Local incentives are those offered by counties, cities, and towns. Not all states have local incentives.

Non-Profit Incentives

Non-profit incentives are offered by non-profit organizations. These are only available in some states.

Friday, December 13, 2013

Show Children How To Fight Pollution

In a world where technology rules and children are engaged by smart phones, video games and web surfing, it’s difficult to see beyond their own needs. As a nanny or parent, though, you have the opportunity to use technology to promote ways to give back, preserve the environment and fight pollution by incorporating these lessons into your child’s daily routines.

With a few suggestions to reduce consumption, recycle and promote organic products, you and your children can make a difference locally, nationally and internationally in a crusade to “go green.”

Electronic Shut Down

As technology advances, it’s likely your children have outgrown gaming systems, old computers and outdated cell phones. According to e-cycle St. Louis, a nonprofit organization promoting technology recycling, nearly two million tons of used electronics are discarded each year, including an estimated 128 million cell phones.

The benefits of donating your e-products are many:
  • Conserves Natural Resources: Metals, computer circuit boards, glass and plastics from your electronics can be reused to make new products.
  • Supports the Community: When donating your unused electronics, recycling organizations often refurbish computers, televisions and cell phones for use in non-profit agencies and schools. Many cell phones and electronics are also donated to low-income families who cannot access or afford technology.
  • Creates Local Jobs: Boost the economy by recycling. Many new businesses are forming in the recycling industry, creating more jobs for people who can recover recyclable materials.
Water Conservation

A long, hot shower or a bubble bath filled to the brim may be a comforting end to the day for you and your children, but the waste of water is a barrier to fighting pollution. Teach your children to conserve water by cutting the length of showers and limiting the depth of baths. Discuss how water conservation can eliminate excess waste and overflow throughout the community.

In addition, reduce urban runoff by reducing outdoor watering habits, recommends Pamela Crouch with the Orange County Coastkeeper in California. According to Crouch, ensure that your sprinkler nozzles are aimed properly so water does not run into the street.

As you discuss water conversation with your children, ask them to look up statistics and images online that show the devastation that pollution brings to lakes, rivers and oceans. A picture says a thousand words and hopefully images of pollution will speak volumes about environmental concerns.

Recycling Rally

In an effort to teach the entire family about how to preserve the environment and fight pollution, it’s important to make recycling a priority. Everyday household items that you typically toss in the trash can be sorted and recycled at community centers or on your curbside. Inquire with your city resource center to see if recycling is available in your community, alongside your weekly trash pickup.

The next step is to get your children involved in identifying household items that can be recycled, such as papers, plastics, glass and metal. CleanScapes, a recycling company based in Seattle, Washington, offers the following list of recyclables:

  • Cardboard
  • Office paper, including windowed envelopes, color paper, file folders and post-it notes
  • Mail, magazines, mixed paper
  • Newspaper
  • Paper bags
  • Paper cups
  • Phone books & paperback books
  • Shredded paper (in clear plastic bags)
  • Wrapping paper (non-metallic)
  • Paper cartons
  • Juice boxes, Tetra Paks & aseptic containers
  • Milk cartons
  • Paper or frozen food boxes
  • Bottles (all colors and numbers)
  • Food containers and trays
  • Clear or colored plastic milk jugs
  • Dairy tubs
  • Pill bottles (no prescription vials)
  • Plastic cups
  • Lids (3 inches or wider)
  • Plastic plant pots
  • Plastic buckets
  • Plastic bags (shopping, newspaper and dry-cleaning bags when bagged together)
  • PVC pipe (white only)
  • Household rigid plastic items, such as furniture and laundry baskets
  • Aluminum cans
  • Aluminum foil & pie tins (clean)
  • Tin cans
  • Ferrous scrap metal
  • Other scrap metals (less than 2’ x 2’ x 2’)
  • Bottles
  • Jars
According to Jim Lewis, former staff in the aluminum industry in Pittsburgh, recycling makes a difference. “Not only does recycling save energy and decrease pollution, it also saves space in landfills,” he says. “Recycling is a simple and easy way to go green everyday in the house. Curbside recycling is easy and families can recycle some materials at scrap yards and turn their trash into cash.” (AupairJobs .com)

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

5 Ways Integration Underdeveloped Black America



1) Black Wealth Stagnated or Declined After Integration

During segregation, Blacks were forced to start and support the businesses in their own communities. Many of these businesses flourished and even helped made some Black communities, such as the Greenwood community in Tulsa, Okla., (often called Black Wall Street), wealthier than their white neighbors.

In 1865, just after Emancipation, 476,748 free Blacks – 1.5 percent of U.S. population– owned a .005 percent of the total wealth of the United States. Today, a full 135 years after the abolition of slavery, 44.5 million Black Americans – 14.2 percent of the population — possess a meager 1 percent of the national wealth.

2) Black Family Structure Collapsed After Integration

In 1965, only 8 percent of childbirths in the Black community occurred out of wedlock. In 2010, that figure was 41 percent; and today, out-of-wedlock childbirths in the Black community is at an astonishing 72 percent.

3) The Unemployment Rate of Black Men Quadrupled After Integration

Since integration, the unemployment rate of Black men has been spiraling out of control. In 1954, white men had a zero percent unemployment rate, while African-American men experienced about a 4 percent rate. By 2010, it was at 16.7 percent for Black men compared to 7.7 percent for white men.

4) Myth of a Colorblind Society Propagated After Integration

Colorblind policies that treat everyone the same, no exceptions for the historically oppressed and disenfranchised, are often used to argue against corrective policies such as affirmative action. But “colorblindness” today merely bolsters the unfair advantages that color-coded practices enabled white Americans to accumulate over a very long time.

5) Black Community Became Dependent After Integration

African-Americans have appealed to the descendants of our oppressors to right their ancestors’ wrongs, pay us sufficient wages to take care of our families, educate our children and police our neighborhoods.
As a result, only 2 percent of all working Black Americans work for another Black person within their own neighborhood. Because of this, professionally trained Black people provide very little economic benefit to the Black community.

(Atlanta Black Star, 12/6/2103)

EPA Seeks Environmental Education Grant Applications

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently accepting applications for environmental education projects under the agency’s Environmental Education Grant Program. The program works to engage communities across the country through a wide variety of educational projects that have a lasting impact on people’s health by facilitating environmental stewardship.

Projects in the past have engaged students in stream monitoring, created sustainable mentoring communities, and provided professional development to teachers on subjects including science, technology, engineering and math.

Eligible organizations include local education agencies, colleges or universities, state education or environmental agencies, tribal education agencies, 501(C)(3) nonprofit organizations, and noncommercial educational broadcasting entities working in education.

This competitive grants program will total $2.77 million. Each of the ten EPA regional offices will award two or three grants and one or two grants will be awarded from EPA’s headquarters in Washington, DC. Each award will be an estimated $75,000 to $200,000. EPA expects to award between 22 and 32 grants nationwide. (EPA)

More information about the program and how to apply

Mel Watt Confirmed By Senate To Lead the Federal Housing Finance Agency

Mel Watt
We applaud the Senate for confirming Congressman Mel Watt to head the Federal Housing Finance Agancy. Watt was confirmed on a vote of 57 to 41 vote and his confirmation was made possible because of the imlementation of the nuclear option - - changing the Senate rules to allow majority vote instead of 60 votes (invoking cloture--to end debate).

Congressman Watt has 40 years of experience in the housing sector and we believe he will be instrumental in solving the problems that plague Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.

Tuesday, December 10, 2013

Michelle DePass Joins The New School

The New School has announced that Michelle J. DePass has been named dean of the Milano School of International Affairs, Management, and Urban Policy. Michelle J. DePass will also be the Tishman Professor of Environmental Policy and Management as part of her appointment.
Michelle J. DePass
DePass will join Milano from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), where since 2009 she has served as Assistant Administrator for International and Tribal Affairs. In this presidentially appointed, senate-confirmed position, DePass has been responsible for all dimensions of environmental policy between the EPA and other nations, federally recognized tribal nations, and multilateral institutions and donors.

Prior to joining the EPA, DePass was a Program Officer at the Ford Foundation, with a portfolio focused on the environment and community development, most notably green economy and climate change, environmental health and justice and indigenous environmental rights. In her two-decade career in sustainability and public service, DePass has also served as founding Executive Director of the New York Environmental Justice Alliance, Senior Policy Advisor to the commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and environmental manager for the City of San Jose.

DePass holds a bachelor’s degree from Tufts University, a Juris Doctor from Fordham Law School and a Master of Public Administration from Baruch College, where she was a National Urban Fellow.
Founded in 1919, The New School has 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students in design and the social sciences, liberal arts, management, the arts, and media. (The New School)

Saturday, December 07, 2013

Reject Fossil Fuel Divestment Campaigns

Washington Examiner: "Divestment From Fossil Fuel Firms Will Hurt DC Residents Without Helping Environment"

One of AAEA's primary goals is to use energy and natural resources as efficiently as possible.  We reject campaigns by some environmental groups to completely eliminate the use of fossil fuels.  Such campaigns are promoting unrealistic, impractical and radical approaches to energy use. 

Although we aggressively support renewable technologies to operate our society, these sources alone cannot provide the amenities required by Americans. Fossil fuels are, and should remain, a vital part of the energy mix in America and throughout the world.

Global warming is a very important issue and AAEA is working very hard to mitigate its negative consequences.  We believe that technological innovations provide the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.  AAEA is promoting multiple approaches and technologies to address climate change.

Coal, natural gas and gasoline provide the energy that powers America.  To call for their complete elimination is to call for significantly reducing the standard of living in the United States. Why divest from resources that provide incredible benefits to American society?  Why divest from stocks that provide dependable and profitable returns?  We hope you will find the information below on fossil fuel divestment campaigns to be useful.

District of Colombia
Bill encouraging divestment from fossil fuels

A hearing on DC Bill 20-481, Fossil Fuel Divestment Act of 2013 was held on Tuesday November 26th. The bill requires the divestment, and prohibits the investment, of public funds in the stocks, securities, or other obligations of certain companies which hold the largest fossil fuel reserves and provides for the identification of companies with the largest fossil fuel reserves. D.C. Council Chairman Phil Mendelson, along with four others, is sponsoring the measure. This is similar to efforts in other cities.

AAEA opposes this bill.

General Background on Divestment Campaigns:

Divestment Campaign Would Hurt American Retirees and College Students

Oil and natural gas company stocks outperform all other asset classes in public pension funds and college/university endowments

In 2012, activist Bill McKibben and his group launched a divestment campaign to encourage colleges, cities, and churches to fight climate change by selling their fossil fuel stocks. According to, “the movement has already spread to over 300 colleges and universities and 100 cities and states in the United States, Australia, and Canada. Over 15 cities, six colleges, and numerous religious institutions, have already committed to dump their fossil fuel holdings.”

Pension funds and colleges/universities have enjoyed strong returns from their investments in America’s oil and natural gas companies over the last decade. State pension fund investments in oil and natural gas companies are providing very healthy returns for teachers, firefighters, police officers, and other public pension retirees, far outperforming other public pension holdings.

A series of studies have found that while 2.1 percent of endowments in fiscal year 2010-2011 were oil and gas stocks, that 2.1 percent generated 5.7 percent of all endowment gains. During that period, oil and natural gas stocks achieved returns of almost 53 percent, far better than the pension funds and endowments’ performance as a whole and the performance of the S&P 500.

While oil and natural gas stocks made up an average of 4.6 percent of holdings in the top public pension funds, they accounted for an average of 15.7 percent of the returns in these funds over a five-year time period for the 48.1 percent of U.S. workers who participate in state and local government pension plans. In fact, they also outperformed as a whole and outperformed every other asset class examined in their investments.

Cities and Colleges Reject Divestment Proposals

The City of San Francisco recently rejected a proposal to divest.

Harvard University announced that the institution will not divest from the fossil fuel industry. The President of Harvard said that the “strength and growth” of the endowment, which pays for more than one-third of Harvard activities each year, is crucial to the support and opportunities the university can provide to its students, faculty, and researchers.

Yale and many other schools have turned down this idea.

Middlebury College, McKibben’s school, announced, after an extensive process of open meetings and group discussions with both sides, they decided too many questions raise serious concerns or remain unanswered for the board to support divestment. The college went on to note, “Given its fiduciary responsibilities, the board cannot look past the lack of proven alternative investment models, the difficulty and material cost of withdrawing from a complex portfolio of investments, and the uncertainties and risks that divestment would create.”, an online reference center, makes available a wealth of materials on African American history in one central location on the Internet.

These materials include an online encyclopedia of nearly 3,000 entries, the complete transcript of nearly 300 speeches by African Americans, other people of African ancestry, and those concerned about race, given between 1789 and 2012, over 140 full text primary documents, bibliographies, timelines and six gateway pages with links to digital archive collections, African and African American museums and research centers, genealogical research websites, and more than 200 other website resources on African American and global African history.

Additionally, 100 major African American museums and research centers and over 400 other website resources on black history are also linked to the website, as are nine bibliographies listing more than 5,000 major books categorized by author, title, subject, and date of publication. It also features a Perspectives Online Magazine which features commentary of important but little known events in black history often written by the individuals who participated in or witnessed them.

To date more than 100 articles have appeared. The compilation and concentration of these diverse resources allows BlackPast.orgto serve as the "Google" of African American history. brings the resources of African American history into every classroom in the world. It also makes every computer, regardless of its location, a classroom in African American history. is dedicated to providing the inquisitive public with comprehensive, reliable, and accurate information concerning the history of African Americans in the United States and people of African ancestry in other regions of the world. It is the aim of the founders and sponsors to foster understanding through knowledge in order to generate constructive change in our society. brings the resources of African American history into every classroom in the world. It also makes every computer, regardless of its location, a classroom in African American history.  (